Background of Bijective methodology
In today’s physics, it seems that experimental data is interpreted as the proof of the phenomenon that has not been directly observed and is based only on the theoretical model. With the obtained data, the model becomes recognized as ‘real’ and the phenomenon that the model describes also become concluded as ‘real’ – it is acknowledged as the physical reality, although it has not been observed by instruments or human senses. This situation is leading physics into deep epistemology crisis, which is not yet seen today. The aim of our research is stressing the situation and finding the solution to overcome this crisis. For which, we have introduced a new, more efficient research methodology-‘ Bijective Physics’. Some years ago two Nobel prizes has been awarded for the discovery of phenomena: Higgs field and gravitational waves, which has not been observed by instruments or human senses. In the Higgs field research, It is measured a characteristic flux of energy named as ‘Higgs boson’. The discovery of the Higgs boson in today’s physics aims to the proof for the existence of Higgs field which was not measured or observed by human senses. In gravitational waves research, it was measured that the laser light motion in the LIGO interferometer needs sometimes (when gravitational wave is supposed to pass the interferometer) a bit longer or shorter time when passing the beams. The minimal time variability of the laser light is, in today physics, the proof for the existence of gravitational waves which were not measured or observed by human senses. This ‘epistemological gap’ between obtained data and their interpretation represents a serious problem from the view of the epistemology of physics.
The weak point of today’s physics methodology is that, based on mathematical models which are proved by indirect experiments (indirect experiments are the ones which do not directly measure the phenomenon that is the subject of a given research), the conclusions are taken about the existence of these phenomena as if they had an actual physical existence. The best examples are the existence of Higgs field and gravitational waves, which both have not been directly observed and measured. They have been only theoretically predicted and described with the mathematical model, for which we do not know how much it correspondents to the physical reality.
Introduction to Bijective Methodology
Special Theory of Relativity (STR), published in 1905, has deeply changed the methodology of physics. STR has caused that still today it is fully acknowledged that time is the 4th dimension of space which has physical existence. The formalism has convinced the majority of physicists that time is the 4th dimension of space-time model. Later on, the acceptation of the space-time model has convinced physicists that time as the 4th dimension of space has real physical existence, although there is no experimental evidence for this and, moreover, nobody has ever seen time as the 4th dimension of space. With STR mathematical model it has happened that mathematics has overruled physics. If today you have a consistent mathematical model, every peer review journal will publish it, without bothering about the epistemological stability of the article. Epistemological stability means the level of the adequacy of the model with physical reality. The most epistemologically stable would be the model which is related to the physical reality with the bijective function of set theory. The bijective function prescribes to each element a physical reality as exactly one element in the model:
Recent research where the so-called ‘bijective epistemology’ was applied has confirmed that the model of space-time has no ‘bijective epistemological stability’. Time is not the 4th physical dimension of space. It seems that Einstein was aware of the fact that time has an exclusively mathematical existence and he added the imaginary number in the formula . After a certain time was removed from the formula, which then became. At the end constant was written as and formula has taken the form , which was then the exact mathematical description of the conviction that material changes are running in some real physical time as the 4th dimension of space. This conviction has no epistemological stability, it is the biggest theoretical failure of the 20th century physics and, however, it is still valid in the mainstream physics today.
In today physics, mathematical models are playing the decisive role. If you are a theoretical physicist and you have a mathematically consistent model of a given phenomenon for which you predict it could exist, possibly, nobody will ask you about the epistemological stability of your model. On the contrary, an experimentalist will try to prove your model with some indirect manipulating experiment.
Let us go back to the end of the 18th century and imagine that we are actively participating in the ether research. We cannot see the ether directly with our senses. We can only see the light which we suppose is the wave of the ether. Our idea is that ether is not stationary, ether is moving with the objects. We can imagine the planet Earth moving through the ether in the way that ether which is around the Earth is moving and rotating with the Earth. Ether we cannot strictly divide from the physical object, they are intrinsically bonded and should be examined together. Such imagination is rescuing the ether hypothesis without the introduction of the length contraction. Photon is the wave of ether and behaves according to the Doppler effect. Every inertial system is moving in the ether and light which is the wave of ether has the same velocity in every inertial system. When the distance between the source of the light and the inertial system that is shortening the light will increase frequency, when the distance is increasing, the light frequency will decrease. Ether which is surrounding the Earth is rotating with the Earth. We call this phenomenon ether drift (in today physics it is called “quantum vacuum dragging effect”) and it fully explains and mathematically describes Sagnac effect, which STR cannot explain .
In physics, it happens that wrong imaginations are summed up. The idea of ‘stationary Ether’ has caused that the Ether was thrown out of the physics. Having no more the medium of light, Einstein has created the idea that a photon can move in an empty space deprived of physical properties. This idea is the cause of the crisis in today’s physics, in which Standard model tries to describe physical reality only with the fields and particles which exist in an empty space. We have, in today physics, three main fields (electromagnetic quantum vacuum of quantum electrodynamics QED, Higgs field and gravity field) and we are not able to recombine these fields in a unique model. For which, we have introduced a new theory- ‘Advanced Relativity’ (AR). Roughly saying, it is the generalised version of GR and SR.
Advanced Relativity is based on bijective research methodology. Advanced Relativity has kept the ether as the physical basis of the universal space. Ether is not in the space; ether is the “stuff” out of which space is made. Ether is dynamic in the sense that ether is moving with the objects and is rotating with them. We call ether with the new name “quantum vacuum”. In the end of the 18th century, light was understood as the wave of the ether. We cannot see and detect ether directly; we can see and detect light as its vibration. Advanced Relativity has adopted this view because Einstein’s idea that photon could move in an empty space deprived of physical properties is more philosophical than scientific: light needs a medium and this medium must also be an element of the scientific model of the physical world. Between ether (quantum vacuum) of physical reality and the ether (quantum vacuum in the model of Advanced Relativity) there is a bijective function: where represents ether in physical reality and represents ether in the model of Advanced Relativity. Advanced Relativity is built on bijective methodology and has following advances:
In the universal space, there is always NOW. Linear time belongs to the mind. With clocks, we measure the duration of material changes, i.e. motions in space.
No signal can move in time, every signal can move in space only and time is the duration of its motion. CMBR radiation is the radiation of quantum vacuum, where there is always NOW. Big Band Theory has come to the end.
In the space velocity of light, it has minimal changes and depends on the energy density of quantum vacuum. “Gravitational time dilation” actually means that light minimally diminishes the speed, because in stronger gravity, energy density of quantum vacuum is a bit lower, which changes its permittivity and permeability, and so velocity of light. We know from classical physics that density of the medium defines velocity of the signal. The denser the medium, the faster the motion of the signal. This is also valid in Advanced Relativity.
Mass and gravity both have origin in variable energy density of quantum vacuum.
Dark energy is the energy of quantum vacuum.
In Advanced Relativity, there is no “inner observer”, “outer observer”, “coordinate time”, “proper time”. Velocity of clocks in all inertial systems is valid for all observers and does not depend on them.
Relative velocity of clocks in inertial systems depends only on the variable energy density of quantum vacuum and is valid for all observers. GPS proves that clocks on the satellites and on the Earth surface run with the same velocity for all observers. It if would not have been be so, GPS could not work.
Curvature of space in GRT is the mathematical description of variable energy density of quantum vacuum. Space is not “curved” in a physical sense. NASA confirms universal space is “flat”; it has Euclidean form.
Advanced Relativity (AR) model is staying with the ether under the new name “dynamic quantum vacuum”, where photon is the wave of quantum vacuum. Inspired by the work of Max Planck, the ether is given a physical property of Planck energy density, which has minimal variations according to the mass of a given physical object: diminished energy density of ether (quantum vacuum) corresponds to the mass of a given physical object:
where is Planck energy density, is energy density of quantum vacuum in the centre of a given particle (or massive body), is mass of the particle (or massive body), is volume of the particle (or massive body). Advanced Relativity model works perfectly without Higgs field and without gravitational field. Mass and gravity both originate in the variable energy density of quantum vacuum.
The main epistemological crisis of today’s physics has the root in the conviction that the development of new mathematical models will develop Physics. This is only partial true, because the mathematical models of today’s physics are often the result of pure mathematical speculation, which is not grounded in human perception and experimental data. For which, we’ve predicted the theory of ‘Bijective methodology’.